Use of sodium/potassium citrate to enhance strength development in carbonate-activated hybrid cement


Hybrid alkaline cement (HAC) typically has a high amount of fly ash (70–80 wt%) and a low amount of clinker (20–30 wt%). A small amount of activator is commonly incorporated in HAC to promote its strength development. Compared with those highly corrosive and hygroscopic alkaline activators (e.g. sodium hydroxide), sodium and potassium carbonate are much preferred because of their lower cost and easier handling and storage. Carbonate-activated HAC, however, usually has low early strength and slow strength development (usually <40 MPa at 28 days) because of the slow reaction of fly ash. This paper investigates the strength development of HAC activated by sodium or potassium carbonate, where a small amount of sodium or potassium citrate is added to promote strength development. It was found that the 28-day compressive strength of the HAC could be improved from 38.5 MPa up to 72.4 MPa by adding 1 wt% sodium or potassium citrate to the mixture. Microstructure characterisation revealed that the inclusion of sodium or potassium citrate led to the formation of denser C-S-H structure in the paste. The environmental impact and cost of the developed HACs were further analysed. Compared with ordinary Portland cement, the HACs’ greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by up to 73 %, and their costs can be reduced by up to 28 %.

Source: Author links open overlay panelQingtao Huang a b, Zhong Tao a, Zhu Pan a, Richard Wuhrer b, Maroun Rahme c

Leave a Reply

Related Posts
Exploring the Future of Pharmaceutical API Manufacturing in India

The pharmaceutical industry is rapidly evolving, and India has emerged as a key player in the global market for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). With its robust infrastructure, skilled workforce, and supportive policies, India is poised to shape the future of pharmaceutical API manufacturing. In this blog, we will delve into the positive aspects and potential […]

The Role of Sodium Butyrate in Gut Health and Digestion

The gut plays a vital role in overall health and well-being, and maintaining gut health is essential for optimal digestion and nutrient absorption. Sodium butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that is produced naturally by the beneficial bacteria in the gut. It plays an important role in maintaining gut health and supporting healthy digestion. In […]

Benefits of Iron Polymaltose Complex

Iron is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in the production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, a condition that can cause fatigue, weakness, and other health problems. Iron polymaltose complex is a form of iron supplement that is […]

Download Brochure
Contact Us